Mulching is a traditional practice in Indian agriculture. It is a method of covering the agricultural land with organic objects or plastic films of allowed thickness.
In organic farming, hay, leaves of the plants, twigs, bark, etc. are used to make protective cover around the plants. Generally the farmers burn the waste after the harvest. They are doing this because of ignorance. The same waste can be used for mulching. Later it decomposes and becomes the part of the soil. The organic objects used for mulching increases the percentage of biocomponents in soil to the ideal standard of 5 percentage. That means this practice makes the soil fertile.
In Inorganic farming, plastic films are used as protective layer around the plants. As they are not decomposed after harvest, they can be kept for next season after washing. This method does not help the soil much in increasing the fertility and the texture of land
The farmers can apply for subsidy if they want to do mulching in their farm. The beneficiary is supposed to take his share of 10000 while the government provides its share of 30000 as subsidy.
Mulching has many advantages. As we have seen organic mulching improves the condition of the soil, it also keeps the soil warm in winter and wet in summer. It means it can control the temperature in the soil. It also increases PH value of the soil if organic method is adopted. This process ensures the limited use of water in the farm by preventing the evaporation. The soil becomes loose due to this practice which is helpful for the roots of the plants to explore the micronutrients and water in the farm land. Moreover, this protective layer on earth reduces the growth of weeds. Everybody knows that removal of weeds is a challenge that the farmers face in India. Microorganisms and earthworms grow abundantly in protected land. It is also an advantage of Mulching.
Similarly, the leaves and the fruits of the plants don’t have contact with the soil when it is covered properly. So they will not be affected by fungal or bacterial infection. This means more produce. In addition to this mulch films hold the plants in their position firmly during winter. It also stops soil from spraying out when the water falls from above. The ideal method of irrigation in mulched farm is drip irrigation. If this is done farmers can save water in two ways.
Soil erosion is another problem during rainy season. It can be effectively restricted to the minimum if farmers mulch their crop. It helps to stop washing off the soil and the fertilizers applied in it.
In short, if the farmers of India practises the traditional methods or modern techniques such a s mulching, drip irrigation in agriculture, they can earn more money from their land.